Vernier Caliper

  1. Vernier calliper is a measuring tool used to measure length.
  2. It is more accurate than the metre rule. It can measure the length with an accuracy up to 0.01cm.
  3. The figure above shows the illustration of a vernier calliper. For SPM students, you need to remember the name of the parts and the function of the 2 jaws and the stem.

Taking Reading from a Vernier Calipers:

  1. A vernier calliper has 2 scales, namely the main scale and the vernier scale.
  2. The main scale is read at the zero mark of the Vernier scale.
  3. The vernier scale is read at the point where it’s scale coincide with the main scale.
  4. Reading of Vernier calliper = Reading of main scale + reading of vernier scale.
  5. The vernier scale is 9mm long, divided into 10 divisions.


Reading of main scale = 2.2cm
Reading of vernier scale = 0.07cm
Reading of the vernier calliper = 2.27cm

Zero Error of Vernier Caliper

  1. The zero error is determined by tightening the jaws of the vernier callipers.
  2. Zero error must be eliminated from the reading.
Actual Reading = Reading of Vernier Caliper – Zero Error

Images below show the reading of 3 vernier callipers when their jaws are tightly closed. Find the zero error of each calliper.

Zero error = 0.02 cm


Zero error = -0.06cm


Zero error = 0 cm (No zero error)

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